MultiLoop10-25c
© Fraunhofer IZI-BB
MultiLoop10-25c

CCCryo – Microalgae as a Bio-Resource

CCCryo, which is perhaps the most unique strain collection in terms of scope and diversity, offers the basis for using cryophilic (= cold-loving) freshwater microalgae – snow and permafrost algae – in an industrial context.

Cryophilic algae are exposed to a variety of extreme stress factors in their natural habitats. First and foremost, these include low temperatures, intense light and UV radiation, dehydration and greatly varying nutrient availability and salt content. The goal is to take the isolates collected from polar expeditions and thus their developed special enzymes and metabolites for use in industrial applications.

To this end, suitable photobioreactors for the sterile mass cultivation of autotrophic organisms as well as the relevant processes are being developed for bioproduction on an industrial scale.

Services:

  • Screening of the CCCryo strains for customer-specific substances
  • Bioprospecting for suitable organisms for special applications
  • Development of production processes
  • Production of raw mass according to SOPs, including high-purity with microbiological quality control in compliance with ISO standards

Culture collection of cryophilic algae

Photobioreactors

Photobioreactor Development for High-Purity Algae Biomass

Vertical glass tube photobioreactors developed at Fraunhofer IZI-BB for sterile production of algae biomass in compliance with Good Laboratory Practices.
© Fraunhofer IZI-BB, Tobias Marschner
Vertical glass tube photobioreactors developed at Fraunhofer IZI-BB for sterile production of algae biomass in compliance with Good Laboratory Practices.

The Institute develops and operates glass tube photobioreactors for the industrial-scale bioproduction of high-purity, mass cultivation of phototrophic organisms. These systems have been used successfully by the institute and industrial customers since 2011. The individual modules of the reactors, each with a working volume of up to 60 l, allow a broad spectrum of phototrophic microorganisms to be used for biotechnology purposes and can be customized to meet specific production requirements. They are operated according to SOPs. Strict microbiological quality control protocols in compliance with ISO standards ensure uncontaminated biomass for sensitive applications.

PUFAChain – Development of an Integrative Bioproduction Process for Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA) From Microalgae

As part of this EU project, an international team of nine partners is studying the value chain, all the way from the bioresource, through to the production, harvesting, processing and the final product. The goal is to establish an economically stable production process for omega-3 fatty acids (DHA and EPA), which should provide the building blocks for modern oleochemistry. It turns out that there are a number of snow algae from CCCryo that are suitable for the production of EPA.

The website for the PUFAChain project can be found here.

Pigments from Algae and Cyanobacteria as Natural Dye for the Food Industry

Carotenoids in snow and permafrost algae
© Fraunhofer IZI-BB, Thomas Leya
Carotenoids in snow and permafrost algae
Cyanophyceen pigments
© Fraunhofer IZI-BB
Cyanophyceen pigments

Snow and permafrost algae typically produce secondary carotenoids and other antioxidants, such as alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). In their natural environments, this enables them react to stresses from low nutrient availability as well as intense light and UV radiation. The various algae strains exhibit some very different pigment patterns.

In mass production, the process is typically divided into two phases. The first involves producing a large amount of biomass under optimum nutrient and light conditions. In the second phase, specific stressors are applied to trigger the synthesis of secondary carotenoids. This usually accumulates large quantities of lipids containing fat-soluble carotenoids.

Depending on the strain of algae, the algae mass contains various levels of

  • astaxanthin
  • alpha and beta carotene
  • lutein
  • alpha-tocopherol
  • violaxanthin
  • antheraxanthin
  • zeaxanthin
  • echinenone
  • hydroxyechinenone
  • neoxanthin
  • adinoxanthin
  • canthaxanthin

 

In industrial applications, the most interesting of these are lutein, astaxanthin and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) for food supplements as well as for the animal feed and cosmetics industries.

Blue, pink and violet dyes, on the other hand, are produced from cyanobacteria in a single phase. These more water-soluble pigments are especially well-suited for the food industry.

  • CCCryo algae culture collection containing over 450 isolates of cryophilic organisms (algae, cyanobacteria, fungi and mosses)
    The database of the CCCryo strain collection as well as ordering information are available on the website. The algae are available to public and industrial research institutions.
  • In-situ sterilizable glass tube photobioreactors in multiloop- and double-helix design with airlift principle (1 x 60 L, 2 x 30 L, 3 x 25 L, 6 x 10 L), total volume in sterile production process = approx. 255 L, with an annual capacity of approx. 100 kg fresh algae mass
  • Cryomicroscope with digital image processing
  • Gas chromatograph with FID detector (Agilent 7890B)
  • Element analyzer (EuroEA CNS)

  • A4F, AlgaFuel, SA, Lisbon (Portugal)
  • GFZ German Research Center for Geosciences, Potsdam (Germany)
  • German Aerospace Center (DLR), Berlin (Germany)
  • Humboldt University of Berlin, Berlin (Germany)
  • IOI Oleochemicals GmbH & Co. KG, Witten (Germany)
  • Mibelle Biochemistry, Mibelle AG, Buchs (Switzerland)
  • Culture Collection of Algae at University of Göttingen, Göttingen (Germany)
  • University of California UCLA, Los Angeles (USA)

  • Liu, Y., Maldonado, P.J., McDonough, S., Eckloff, B., de Vera, J.-P., Cockell, C., Leya, T., Baqué, M., Jen, J., Schulze-Makuch, D. & Walther-Antonio, M. (2020 (in process)): Single cell whole genome sequencing reveals single nucleotide evolution characteristics of biofilm and photosynthetic encoding genes of Nostoc sp. in a 15-month BIOMEX experiment on the International Space Station. - Scientific Data
  • Laufmann, P. (2020): Kaltblütig im Frost. natur 1-20: 50-53
  • Leya, T. (2019 (invited speaker)): Cryophilic algae and their potential for a biobased economy. - Proceedings of the Bionnale 2019, Berlin (Germany), 07.05.2019.
  • Schwarz-Weig, E. & Leya, T. (2019): Seit 200 Jahren bekannt und noch voller Rätsel: Die blutrote Schneealge ist Alge des Jahres 2019. - In: Sektion Phykologie in der Deustchen Botanischen Gesellschaft, (ed.), online. 7.
  • Procházková, L., Leya, T., Křížková, H. & Nedbalová, L. (2019): Sanguina nivaloides and Sanguina aurantia gen. et spp. nov. (Chlorophyta): the taxonomy, phylogeny, biogeography and ecology of two newly recognised algae causing red and orange snow. - FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 95(6): fiz064. doi: 10.1093/femsec/fiz064
  • Liu, Y., Jeraldo, P., Schulze-Makuch, D., Vera, J.-P.d., Cockell, C., Leya, T., Baqué, M. & Walther-Antonio, M. (2019): Single cell whole genome amplification in optofluidic platform and sequencing assessment from the Biology and Mars Experiment (BIOMEX). - Proceedings of the Astrobiology Science Conference (AbSciCon) 2019, Seattle, Washington (USA), 24.-28.06.2019.
  • Leya, T., Baqué, M., Rabbow, E. & de Vera, J.-P.P. (2019): Cryophilic algae survive in space. - Proceedings of the BIOMEX Closing Ceremony Meeting, DLR, Berlin (Germany), 27.03.-29.03.2019, DLR.
  • Leya, T. (2019): Die Alge des Jahres 2019 und andere kälteliebende Schneealgen und ihr Potential für die Lebensmittelindustrie. RFL - Rundschau für Fleischhygiene und Lebensmittelüberwachung 71(6/2019)
  • Leya, T. (2019): Die blutrote Schneealge ist Alge des Jahres 2019. - In: Pirich, C., (ed.). RBB Kulturradio am Vormittag. Kulturradio, Rundfunk Berlin Brandenburg, Berlin.
  • Jeraldo, P., Liu, Y., Schulze-Makuch, D., Vera, J.-P.d., Cockell, C., Leya, T., Baqué, M. & Walther-Antonio, M. (2019): Bioinformatics characterization of single-cell isolates from the BIOMEX experiment. - Proceedings of the ASM Microbe 2019, San Francsico, CAL (U.S.A.), 20.06.-24.06.2019.
  • de Vera, J.-P., Alawi, M., Backhaus, T., Baqué, M., Billi, D., Böttger, U., Berger, T., Cockell, C., Demets, R., de la Torre Noetzel, R., Edwards, H., Elsaesser, A., Fagliarone, C., Fiedler, A., Foing, B., Foucher, F., Fritz, J., Hanke, F., Herzog, T., Horneck, G., Hübers, H.-W., Huwe, B., Joshi, J., Kozyrovska, N., Kruchten, M., Lasch, P., Lee, N., Leya, T., Lorek, A., Moritz, S., Möller, R., Olsson-Francis, K., Onofri, S., Ott, S., Pacelli, C., Podolich, O., Martínez-Frías, J., Rabbow, E., Reitz, G., Rettberg, P., Reva, O., Rothschild, L., Sancho, L.G., Schulze-Makuch, D., Selbmann, L., Serrano, P., Szewzyk, U., Verseux, C., Wagner, D., Westall, F., Wolter, D. & Zucconi, L. (2019): Limits of life and the habitability of Mars: The ESA space experiment BIOMEX on the ISS. - Astrobiology 19(2): 145-157. doi: 10.1089/ast.2018.1897
  • Baqué, M., Hanke, F., Böttger, U., Leya, T., Möller, R. & de Vera, J.-P. (2019): Supporting future “search-for-life” missions: spectroscopy analysis of biosignatures after space and Mars-like environment exposure. - Proceedings of the 12th Workshop FT-IR Spectroscopy in Microbiological and Medical Diagnostics, Berlin (Germany), 10.10.-11.10.2019.
  • Liu, Y., Schulze-Makuch, D., de Vera, J.-P., Cockell, C., Leya, T., Baqué, M. & Walther-Antonio, M. (2018): The development of an effective bacterial single-cell lysis method suitable for whole genome amplification in microfluidic platforms. - Micromachines 9(8): art. no. 367. doi: 10.3390/mi9080367
  • Leya, T., Jorde, F., Wenzel, D., Teufelhart, C., Lutz, S., Benning, L.G., Merchant, S., Gallaher, S., Castruita, M. & Schmutz, J. (2018): Psychrophilic snow algae - their potential in biotechnology. - Proceedings of the 2nd SAM2018, Potsdam (Germany), 15.-16.11.2018.
  • Leya, T. (2018): Psychrophilic snow algae: Model organisms for drought and salt stress. - Proceedings of the Workshop „C. merolae as an emerging model organism“, Berlin (Germany), 08.-09.10.2018.
  • Jorde, F., Leya, T., Thomas, R., Pereira, S., Badenes, S.M., Santos, E., Costa, L., Verdelho Vieira, V., Friedl, T. & Kryvenda, A. (2018): The Algae Crop Rotation principle as a potential basis for algae mass production. - Proceedings of the 17th Scientific Conference of the Phycology Section of the German Botanical Society, Berchtesgaden (Germany), 11.-14.03.2018, in-house publishers: 49.
  • Baqué, M., Hanke, F., Böttger, U., Leya, T., Moeller, R. & Vera, J.-P. (2018): Protection of cyanobacterial carotenoids' Raman signatures by Martian mineral analogues after high-dose gamma irradiation. - Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 49(10): 1617-1627. doi: doi:10.1002/jrs.5449
  • PUFAChain Consortium (2017): The Value Chain from Microalgae to PUFA, project acronym: PUFAChain, grant no. 613303. Report. European Commission, Brussels. doi: https://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/110872
  • Pereira, S., Parreira, C., Mota, R., Semião, F., Badenes, S.M., Santos, E., Costa, L., Leya, T., Friedl, T. & Verdelho Vieira, V. (2017): Overcoming the challenges in the very first closed photobioreactor pilot scale cultivations of cryophilic and dinoflagellate microalgae strains for PUFA production. - Proceedings of the Algae Biorefineries for Europe, Brussels (Belgium), 17.-18.10.2017.
  • Leya, T., Jorde, F., Thomas, R., Pereira, S., Badenes, S.M., Santos, E., Costa, L., Verdelho Vieira, V., Friedl, T. & Kryvenda, A. (2017): The Algae Crop Rotation principle as a potential basis for algae mass production. - Proceedings of the Algae Biorefineries for Europe, Brussels (Belgium), 17.-18.10.2017.
  • Leya, T., Baqué, M., Rabbow, E. & de Vera, J.P. (2017): 241. Cryophilic algae survive in space. - Phycologia 56(sp4): 115
  • Jorde, F., Wenzel, D., Gutschmann, B. & Leya, T. (2017): Facing the challenges of pure microalgae production in pilot scale photobioreactors. - Proceedings of the Algae Biorefineries for Europe, Brussels (Belgium), 17.-18.10.2017.
  • Jorde, F. & Leya, T. (2017): Algae Crop Rotation, ACR. - Proceedings of the 10. Bundesalgenstammtisch, Merseburg (Germany), 10.-12.09.2017.
  • Friedl, T., Kryvenda, A., Leya, T. & Jorde, F. (2017): EU FP7 project PUFAChain – bringing links of value chain together. - Proceedings of the 10. Bundesalgenstammtisch, Merseburg (Germany), 10.-12.09.2017.
  • Joussellin, S. (2017): Algues dans l'espace. http://www.rtl.fr/emission/innovations-week-end. RTL, 9 February 2017, Paris.
  • Coghlan, A. (2017): Primitive plants survive almost two years in outer space. New Sci. (9 February 2017)
  • Baqué, M., Böttger, U., Leya, T. & de Vera, J.-P. (2017): BIOMEX on EXPOSE-R2: First results on the preservation of Raman biosignatures after space exposure. - Proceedings of the European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2017, Vienna (Austria), 23.-28.04.2017.
  • Pereira, S., Parreira, C., Santos, E., Costa, L., Verdelho Vieira, V., Jorde, F., Leya, T., Kryvenda, A. & Friedl, T. (2016): Cultivation temperature influence on growth rate and fatty acid profile of PUFA producing microalgae strains. AlgaeEurope, Madrid (Spain).
  • Leya, T. (2016): Fraunhofer-Algen zurück von der ISS. Fraunhofer Institut für Immunologie und Zelltherapie, Institutsteil Bioanalytik und Bioprozesse (IZI-BB), Potsdam.
  • de Vera, J.-P., Baqué, M., Lorek, A., Wolter, D., Böttger, U., Hanke, F., Hübers, H.-W., de la Torre Noetzel, R., Sánchez, F.J., Sancho, L.G., Billi, D., Verseux, C., Rettberg, P., Rabbow, E., Panitz, C., Reitz, G.n., Berger, T., Möller, R., Bohmeier, M., Leuko, S., Horneck, G., Westall, F., Jänchen, J., Herzog, T., Fritz, J.r., Meyer, C., Onofri, S., Selbmann, L., Zucconi, L., Pacelli, C., Kozyrovska, N., Leya, T., Foing, B., Demets, R., Cockell, C.S., Olsson-Francis, K., Wagner, D., Edwards, H.G.M., Joshi, J., Huwe, B.r., Grossniklaus, U., Rövekamp, M., Pascale, E., Elsaesser, A., Schulze-Makuch, D., Feyh, N., Kliefoth, M., Szewzyk, U., Lasch, P., Lee, N., Ott, S., Backhaus, T., Kruchten, M. & Meessen, J. (2016): BIOMEX – past, present and future activities of an ISS-experiment. 16th EANA Astrobiology Conference, Athens (Greece).
  • Wagner, D., de Vera, J.-P., Joshi, J., Leya, T. & Schulze-Makuch, D. (2015): Astrobiologie - dem Leben im Universum auf der Spur. System Erde 5(1): 40-47
  • Kryvenda, A., Stehr, M., Leya, T., Olberg, B. & Friedl, T. (2015): The European PUFAChain project (FP7) - a value chain from algal biomass to lipid-based products. - Eur. J. Phycol. 50(sup1): 40.
  • Godino, N., Jorde, F., Lawlor, D., Jaeger, M. & Duschl, C. (2015): Purification of microalgae from bacterial contamination using a disposable inertia-based microfluidic device. - J. Micromech. Microeng. 25(8): 084002.
  • de Vera J-P, Boettger U, Lorek A, Wolter D, Grunow D, Hübers H-W, Spohn T, Noetzel RdlT, Sánchez FJ, Billi D, Baqué M, Rettberg P, Rabbow E, Reitz G, Berger T, Leuko S, Möller R, Bohmeier M, Horneck G, Westall F, Jänchen J, Fritz J, Meyer C, Onofri S, Selbmann L, Zucconi L, Kozyrovska N, Leya T, Foing B, Demets R, Cockell CS, Bryce C, Philips Brown S, Olsson-Francis K, Wagner D, Serrano P, Edwards HGM, Joshi J, Huwe B, Moritz S, Ehrenfreund P, Elsaesser A, Ott S, Meessen J, Feyh N, Szewzyk U, Schulze-Makuch D, Hermelink A, Lasch P. BIOMEX – the Biology and Mars Experiment in space during the EXPOSE-R2 mission on the ISS. GRA. 2014;16.
  • Leya T. Snow Algae: Adaptation strategies to survive on snow and ice. In: Seckbach, J., Oren, A. & Stan-Lotter, H. (eds.): Polyextremophiles, Vol. 27 (2013): S. 401-423, Springer Netherlands. DOI dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-6488-0_17.
  • Remias D, Wastian H, Lütz C, Leya T. (2013): Insights into the biology and phylogeny of Chloromonas polyptera (Chlorophyta), an alga causing orange snow in Maritime Antarctica. Antarct. Sci. 25 (2013), 5: S. 648-656. DOI dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954102013000060.
  • de Vera J-P, Boettger U, Noetzel RdlT, Sánchez, FJ, Grunow D, Schmitz N, Lange C, Hübers H-W, Billi D, Baqué M, Rettberg P, Rabbow E, Reitz G, Berger T, Möller R, Bohmeier M, Horneck G, Westall F, Jänchen J, Fritz J, Meyer C, Onofri S, Selbmann L, Zucconi L, Kozyrovska N, Leya T, Foing B, Demets R, Cockell CS, Bryce C, Wagner D, Serrano P, Edwards HGM, Joshi J, Huwe B, Ehrenfreund P, Elsaesser A, Ott S, Meessen J, Feyh N, Szewzyk U, Jaumann R, Spohn T. Supporting Mars exploration: BIOMEX in Low Earth Orbit and further astrobiological studies on the Moon using Raman and PanCam technology. Planetary and Space Science 74 (2012), 1: S. 103-110.
  • Remias D, Aigner S, Leya T, Lütz C, Stuppner H, Schwaiger S. Characterization of an UV- and VIS-absorbing, purpurogallin-derived secondary pigment new to algae and highly abundant in Mesotaenium berggrenii (Zygnematophyceae, Chlorophyta), an extremophyte living on glaciers. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 79 (2012), 3: S. 638-648. DOI dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6941.2011.01245.x.
  • Spijkerman E, Wacker A, Weithoff G, Leya T. Elemental and fatty acid composition of snow algae in Arctic habitats. Frontiers in Microbiology 3 (2012): S. 380. DOI dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2012.00380.
  • Remias D, Karsten U, Lütz C, Leya T. Physiological and morphological processes in the Alpine snow alga Chloromonas nivalis (Chlorophyceae) during cyst formation. Protoplasma 243 (2010), 1: S. 73-86. DOI dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00709-010-0123-y.
  • Leya T, Rahn A, Lütz C, Remias D. Response of arctic snow and permafrost algae to high light and nitrogen stress by changes in pigment composition and applied aspects for biotechnology. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 67 (2008), 3: S. 432-443. DOI dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6941.2008.00641.x.
  • Reichle C, Schnelle T, Müller T, Leya T, Fuhr G. A new microsystem for automated electrorotation measurements using laser tweezers. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1459 (2000): S. 218-229.
  • de Nys R, Leya T, Maximilien R, Afsar A, Nair PSR, Steinberg PD. The need for standardised broad scale bioassay testing: a case study using the red alga Laurencia rigida. Biofouling 10 (1996), 1-3: S. 213-224. DOI dx.doi.org/10.1080/08927019609386281.